Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) bacteria are a common cause of digestive illnesses, including gastritis (the irritation and inflammation of the stomach lining), peptic ulcers(sores in the lining of the stomach, small intestine, or esophagus), and even stomach cancer later in life.
These bacteria are found worldwide, but especially in developing countries, where up to 10% of children and 80% of adults are likely to have had an H.pylori infection — usually without any symptoms.
A Japanese study published in The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, investigated the transmission of H. pylori within young patients and their families. Helicobacter pylori is a bacterium that weakens the protective mucous coating of the esophagus, stomach or duodenum, allowing acid to irritate the sensitive lining beneath, causing inflammation (gastritis) or ulcers to form. Most ulcers result from infection with H. pylori.
Forty-two pediatric patients, who were diagnosed with H. pylori gastritis with or without duodenal/stomach ulcers, took part in the study as well as 119 family members, including mothers, fathers, siblings, and grandparents. Comparative results from the DNA fingerprinting analysis of the cultures taken, showed that mother-to-child transmission of the H. pylori infection is a major route of intra-familial clustering of the bacteria.
Of the 42 mothers who were tested, 85.7% tested positive for H. pylori and 69% had the identical DNA strain to the one that their child had. Only 17% of the 39 fathers tested, had the identical bacteria strain, even though 73% tested positive for the bacteria.
In one of the subjects, a grandmother’s H. pylori strain was identical to the grandchild’s and, in this case, she was the primary caregiver. Previous studies had shown that the H. pylori infection may be spread from sibling-to-sibling in large families. However, this study took place in Japan, where smaller families are the norm, and results indicated that 53% of siblings were H. pylori negative and sibling-to-sibling transmission was excluded in more than two-thirds of the families.
Researchers concluded that the predominance of mother-to-child transmission of H. pylori infection may be due to the amount of time a mother spends in contact with the child compared to time the father spends with the child. The researches noted that, for reasons not fully understood, the peak occurrences of infection appear during the first and fifth years of life.
Infected parents, especially infected mothers, may play a key role in transmission of Helicobacter pylori within the family. The aim of this population-based study was to determine the role of parental infection status in transmission of H. pylori to the child by taking into consideration the infection status of both parents simultaneously.
Study subjects were a sample of preschool children in the city of Ulm, located in Southern Germany, who were screened for school fitness between January and July, 1998. The infection status of the children was determined by the 13C-urea breath test (UBT). Parental infection status was determined by measurement of specific H. pylori IgG antibodies in saliva using a modified immunoassay (Milenia H. pylori IgG; DPC, Biermann, Germany). The parents provided additional information through a standardized questionnaire.
We included 305 children ages 5 to 7 years (mean age, 5.8 years) and their parents in the analysis. Prevalence of H. pylori infection in children by means of UBT was 10.2% [95% confidence interval (CI) 7.0-14.1%]. The prevalence of infection was 5.1% if the mother showed no salivary antibody response against H. pylori and 17.3% if she did. Prevalence of infection in children was 6.8% if the father showed no salivary antibody response and 19.1% if he did. After adjustment for potential confounders (including infection of the spouse), the odds ratio for H. pylori infection of the child was 3.9 (95% CI 1.4 to 10.6) when the mother was saliva-positive and 2.0 (95% CI 0.8 to 5.3) when the father was saliva-positive.
This study strengthens previous evidence that in the population studied infected parents, in particular mothers may play a key role in transmission of H. pylori to the child.
Signs and Symptoms
Anyone can have an H. pylori infection without knowing it — most H. pylori infections are “silent” and cause no symptoms. When the bacteria do cause symptoms, they’re usually either symptoms of gastritis or peptic ulcer disease.
In kids, symptoms of gastritis may include nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain, although these symptoms are seen in many childhood illnesses.
pylori, which used to be called Campylobacter pylori, also can cause peptic ulcers (commonly known as stomach ulcers). In older kids and adults, the most common symptom of peptic ulcer disease is a gnawing or burning pain in the abdomen, usually in the area below the ribs and above the navel. This pain often gets worse on an empty stomach and improves as soon as the person eats food, drinks milk, or takes antacid medicine.
Kids who have peptic ulcer disease can have ulcers that bleed, causing hematemesis (bloody vomit or vomit that looks like coffee grounds) or melena (stool that’s black, bloody, or looks like tar). Younger children with peptic ulcers may not have such clear symptoms, so their illness may be harder to diagnose.
Scientists suspect that H. pylori infection may be contagious because the infection seems to run in families and is more common where people live in crowded or unsanitary conditions. Although research suggests that infection is passed from person to person, exactly how this happens isn’t really known.
Doctors can make the diagnosis of an H. pylori infection by using many different types of tests. A doctor may:
- look at the stomach lining directly. The patient will be under sedation during this procedure, which involves inserting an endoscope — a small, flexible tube with a tiny camera on the end — down the throat and into the stomach and duodenum. The doctor may then take samples of the lining to be checked in the laboratory for microscopic signs of infection and for pyloribacteria.
- do blood tests, which can detect the presence of pyloriantibodies. Blood tests are easy to do, although a positive test may indicate exposure to H. pylori in the past, not an active infection.
- do breath tests, which can detect carbon broken down by pyloriafter the patient drinks a solution. Breath tests are time-consuming, provide no information about the infection’s severity, and can be difficult to perform in young children.
- do stool tests, which can detect the presence of pyloriproteins in the stool (poop). Like breath testing, stool tests indicate the presence of H. pylori but give no information about an infection’s severity.
Doctors treat H. pylori infections using antibiotics. Because a single antibiotic may not kill the bacteria, your child will normally be given a combination of antibiotics. Usually, the doctor will also give antacids or acid-suppressing drugs to neutralize or block production of stomach acids.
If your child has symptoms of bleeding from the stomach or small intestine, these symptoms will be treated in a hospital.
Because H. pylori infection can be cured with antibiotics, the most important home treatment is to give your child any prescribed antibiotic medicine on schedule for as long as the doctor has directed.
One way to help soothe the abdominal pain is by following a regular meal schedule. This means planning meals so that your child’s stomach doesn’t remain empty for long periods. Eating five or six smaller meals each day may be best, and your child should take some time to rest after each meal.
It’s also important to avoid giving your child aspirin, aspirin-containing medicines, ibuprofen, or anti-inflammatory drugs because these may irritate the stomach or cause stomach bleeding.
With prolonged antibiotic therapy, H. pylori gastritis and peptic ulcer disease (especially ulcers in the duodenum, a portion of the small intestine) often can be cured.
Right now, there’s no vaccine against H. pylori. And because transmission isn’t clearly understood, prevention guidelines aren’t available. However, it’s always important to make sure you and your family:
- Wash your hands
- Eat food that’s been properly prepared.
- Drink water from a safe source.
When to Call the Doctor
Call your doctor immediately if your child has any of these symptoms:
- severe abdominal pain
- vomit that’s bloody or looks like coffee grounds
- stool that’s bloody, black, or looks like tar
- lasting gnawing or burning pain in the area below the ribs that improves after eating, drinking milk, or taking antacids
However, it’s important to remember kids can get stomachaches for many reasons — like indigestion, viruses, tension and worry, and appendicitis. Most stomachaches are not caused by H. pylori bacteria.